Sunday, May 24, 2020
Idi Amin (c. 1923Ã¢â¬âAugust 16, 2003), who became known as the Butcher of Uganda for his brutal, despotic rule as the President of Uganda in the 1970s, is perhaps the most notorious of Africas post-independence dictators. Amin seized power in a military coup in 1971, ruled over Uganda for eight years, and imprisoned or killed at least 100,000 of his opponents. He was ousted in 1979 by Ugandan nationalists, after which he went into exile. Fast Facts: Idi Amin Known For: Amin was a dictator who served as the president of Uganda from 1971 to 1979.Also Known As: Idi Amin Dada Oumee, The Butcher of UgandaBorn: c. 1923 in Koboko, UgandaParents: Andreas Nyabire and Assa AatteDied: August 16, 2003 in Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaSpouse(s): Malyamu, Kay, Nora, Madina, Sarah KyolabaChildren: Unknown (estimates range from 32 to 54) Early Life Idi Amin Dada Oumee was born around 1923 near Koboko, in the West Nile Province of what is now the Republic of Uganda. Deserted by his father at an early age, he was brought up by his mother, an herbalist and diviner. Amin was a member of the Kakwa ethnic group, a small Islamic tribe that had settled in the region. Success in the Kings African Rifles Amin received little formal education. In 1946, he joined Britains colonial African troops known as the Kings African Rifles (KAR) and served in Burma, Somalia, Kenya (during the British suppression of the Mau Mau), and Uganda. Although he was considered a skilled soldier, Amin developed a reputation for cruelty and was almost cashiered on several occasions for excessive brutality during interrogations. Nevertheless, he rose through the ranks, reaching sergeant major before finally being made an effendi, the highest rank possible for a black African serving in the British army. Amin was also an accomplished athlete, holding Ugandas light heavyweight boxing championship title from 1951 to 1960. A Violent Start As Uganda approached independence, Amins close colleagueÃ Apollo Milton Obote, the leader of the Uganda Peoples Congress (UPC), was made chief minister and then prime minister. Obote had Amin, one of only two high-ranking Africans in the KAR, appointed as first lieutenant of the Ugandan Army. Sent north to quell cattle stealing, Amin perpetrated such atrocities that the British government demanded he be prosecuted. Instead, Obote arranged for him to receive further military training in the U.K. Soldier for the State On his return to Uganda in 1964, Amin was promoted to major and given the task of dealing with an army in mutiny. His success led to a further promotion to colonel. In 1965, Obote and Amin were implicated in a deal to smuggle gold, coffee, and ivory out of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A parliamentary investigation demanded by President Edward Mutebi Mutesa II put Obote on the defensive. Obote promoted Amin to general and made him chief-of-staff, had five ministers arrested, suspended the 1962 constitution, and declared himself president. Mutesa was forced into exile in 1966 after government forces, under the command of Amin, stormed the royal palace. Coup dEtat Idi Amin began to strengthen his position within the Army using the funds obtained from smuggling and from supplying arms to rebels in southern Sudan. He also developed ties with British and Israeli agents in the country. President Obote first responded by putting Amin under house arrest. When this failed to work, Amin was sidelined to a non-executive position in the Army. On January 25, 1971, while Obote was attending a meeting in Singapore, Amin led a coup detat, taking control of the country and declaring himself president. Popular history recalls Amins declared title to be His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of All the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular. Amin was initially welcomed both within Uganda and by the international community. President MutesaÃ¢â¬âfondly known as King FreddieÃ¢â¬âhad died in exile in 1969, and one of Amins earliest acts was to have the body returned to Uganda for a state burial. Political prisoners (many of whom were Amin followers) were freed and the Ugandan Secret Police was disbanded. At the same time, however, Amin formed killer squads to hunt down Obotes supporters. Ethnic Purging OboteÃ took refuge in Tanzania, from where, in 1972, he attempted unsuccessfully to regain the country through a military coup. Obote supporters within the Ugandan Army, predominantly from the Acholi and Lango ethnic groups, were also involved in the coup. Amin responded by bombing TanzanianÃ townsÃ and purging the Army of Acholi and Lango officers. The ethnic violence grew to include the whole of the Army, and then Ugandan civilians, as Amin became increasingly paranoid. The Nile Mansions Hotel in Kampala became infamous as Amins interrogation and torture center, and Amin is said to have moved residences regularly to avoid assassination attempts. His killer squads, under the official titles of State Research Bureau and Public SafetyÃ Unit,Ã were responsible for tens of thousands of abductions and murders. Amin personally ordered the execution of the Anglican Archbishop of Uganda, the chancellor of Makerere College, the governor of the Bank of Uganda, and several of his own parliamentary ministers. Economic War In 1972, Amin declared economic war on Ugandas Asian population, a group that dominated Ugandas trade and manufacturing sectors as well as a significant portion of the civil service. Seventy thousand Asian holders of British passports were given three months to leave the country, and the abandoned businesses were handed over to Amins supporters. Amin severed diplomatic ties with Britain and nationalized 85 British-owned businesses. He also expelled Israeli military advisors, turning instead to Colonel Muammar Muhammad al-Gadhafi of Libya and the Soviet Union for support. Leadership Amin was considered by many to be a gregarious, charismatic leader, and he was often portrayed by the international press as a popular figure. In 1975, he was elected chair of the Organisation of African Unity (thoughÃ Julius Kambarage Nyerere, president of Tanzania, Kenneth DavidÃ Kaunda,Ã president of Zambia, andÃ Seretse Khama, president of Botswana, boycotted the meeting). AÃ United NationsÃ condemnation was blocked by African heads of state. Hypomania Popular legend claims that Amin was involved in blood rituals and cannibalism. More authoritative sources suggest he may have suffered from hypomania, a form of manic depression characterized by irrational behavior and emotional outbursts. As his paranoia became more pronounced, Amin imported troops from Sudan and Zaire. Eventually, less than 25 percent of the Army was Ugandan. Support for his regime faltered as accounts of Amins atrocities reached the international press. The Ugandan economy suffered, with inflation eclipsing 1,000%. Exile In October 1978, with the assistance of Libyan troops, Amin attempted to annex Kagera, the northern province of Tanzania (which shares a border with Uganda). Tanzanian presidentÃ Julius Nyerere responded by sending troops into Uganda, and with the aid of rebel Ugandan forces they were able to capture the Ugandan capital of Kampala. Amin fled to Libya, where he stayed for almost 10 years before finally relocating to Saudi Arabia. He remained there in exile for the remainder of his life. Death On August 16, 2003, Amin died in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The cause of death was reported as multiple organ failure. Although the Ugandan government announced that his body could be buried in Uganda, he was quickly buried in Saudi Arabia. Amin was never tried for his gross abuse ofÃ human rights. Legacy Amins brutal reign has been the subject of numerous books, documentaries, and dramatic films, including Ghosts of Kampala, The Last King of Scotland, and General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait. Often depicted in his time as an eccentric buffoon with delusions of grandeur, Amin is now considered one of historys cruelest dictators. Historians believe his regime was responsible for at least 100,000 deaths and possibly many more. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Idi Amin, a Brutal Dictator Of Uganda, Is Dead at 80.Ã¢â¬ The New York Times, 16 Aug. 2003.Wall, Kim. Ã¢â¬Å"Ghost Stories: Idi Amins Torture Chambers.Ã¢â¬ IWMF, 27 Dec. 2016.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Kostas E. Sillignakis Ã¢â¬â www.sillignakis.com SAMPLE OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL: Ã¢â¬Å"Rural Tourism Development for the Prefecture of Lassithi in Crete.Ã¢â¬ 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM STATEMENT AND PURPOSE OF STUDY Over the last two decades or so, the whole world has experienced rapid changes and socioeconomic transformations. The socioeconomic changes affected and caused severe stress mainly to isolated, peripheral and rural areas of the world. However, the changes in economic and social culture structure of the world caused decreased farm revenues, changing in the farmland values and high rates of unemployment, leading to mass exodus of the productive forces and lack of balance in the demographics of rural areas (Gannon, 1993). It is obvious fromÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2.2 DEFINITION OF RURAL TOURISM Even though it seems simple to define rural tourism as Ã¢â¬Å"tourism that takes place in the countrysideÃ¢â¬ this definition does not include the complexity of the activities and the different forms and meanings developed in different countries, as well as the number of protagonists participating in rural tourism (Lane, 1993). According to (Lane, 1994) it is difficult to define rural tourism since there is not a systematic source of data in rural tourism and neither World Tourism Organization (WTO) nor the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have appropriate measures. Nevertheless, Opperman (1996) suggested that the field of rural tourism still lacks a comprehensive body of knowledge and theoretical framework. He argued that this is caused by a) Definitional problems concerning what constitutes rural tourism b) Lack of data sources on small, rural enterprises which makes rural tourism much less obvious and signifies much more tedious work for researchers in their quest for data (Butler et al, 1998:224). Although, the need to differentiate rural tourism from other forms of tourism exists. Even if there is ambiguity between urban and rural and it is certainly difficult to speak about strictly rural characteristics, people still shape images and views of the countryside that differ from those of the town. The social representations of rural areas by the media and Kostas E. Sillignakis Ã¢â¬â www.sillignakis.comShow MoreRelatedExample of Proposal in Research634 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages A PROPOSAL FOR A RESEARCH ON FOOTBALL TECHNOLOGY By Ahmad Zaid Bin Ahmad Affendi B061310020 Nur Aina Mardhia Binti Mohd Esmadi B061310202 Tee Wan Xin B061310090 Saiful Hafizie B. Ramli@Hashim B061310237 Halimaton Saadiah Binti Hakimi B061310222 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose We propose to complete the research and produce a report on football technology. We also want to explore its functions and effects of this technology towards the football games. Read MoreExample 1 Good Research Proposal With1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Research Proposal Assignment Title: Research Methodology Code: POPP 5006 Module Leader: Dr H. Oztel; Name: Anonymous Student Number: Pxxxxxxx Word Count: 1200 ( Excluding References ) Date: 17 April 20xx Programme: MSc IBM Table of Content Title 3 Keywords 3 Aims of Research 3 Background 3 Research Questions Read MoreResearch Proposal on Childhood Obesity Essay example979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesis the commonest problem facing man at present. Though the understanding of hypertension has improved considerably with an increased awareness of the disorder in the general population, the control of hypertension has been dismally poor. During my research, I personally have found that blood pressure levels often equate with low birth weight, body mass, maternal age, racial factors, childhood obesity, insulin levels, an elevated blood pressure during childhood, and a positive family history. In factRead MoreResearch Proposal Electronic Health Records Essay example2410 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesenhanced ability to make more informed and more-timely decisions, and decreased errors. Despite these benefits, there are mixed results as to the use of EHR. The aim of this research is to determine if medical health professionals who lack experience with technology are slower to adopt a nd use electronic health records (EHR). Research has shown that the healthcare industry is plagued by rapidly increasing costs and poor quality. The United States medical care is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most costly, but its outcomesRead MoreResearch Proposal779 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMBA THESIS PROPOSAL GUIDELINES 1. INTRODUCTION The aim of this document is to give MBA students practical guidance about their thesis proposal. In addition to some general comments, the actual structure that should be followed in presenting the proposal is also outlined. The research proposal can serve many useful functions. The most important is that it helps the student to think out the research project he/she is about to undertake and predict any difficulties that might arise. For those who areRead MoreSample Research Paper1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe main purpose of a research proposal is to show that the problem you propose to investigate is significant enough to warrant the investigation, the method you plan to use is suitable and feasible, and the results are likely to prove fruitful and will make an original contribution. In short, what you are answering is will it work? A provisional way of presenting all the parameters of research in logical order is known as proposal-writing stage. Irrespective of some other motives such as financialRead MoreHow to Write a Research Proposal1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHow to write a research proposal There is no single format for research proposals. This is because every research project is different. Different disciplines, donor organisations and academic institutions all have different formats and requirements. There are, however, several key components which must be included in every research proposal. The specific research problem will dictate what other sections are required. Key components are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A description of the research problem. Ã¢â¬ ¢ An argumentRead MoreRecidivism, And Its Potential Indicators Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Recidivism, and its potential indicators, remains a phenomenon that criminological research is eager to investigate. This comes as no surprise considering approximately 60% of people undergoing a custodial sentence in Australia have already been imprisoned before (AIC 2011), as well as the estimate that crime costs Australia almost $36 billion a year (AIC 2011). Yet despite these staggering statistics, studies on recidivism are far and few between (Payne 2007, p.iii) and thus, more studies oughtRead MoreHow to Write a Thesis Proposal1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTHE THESIS PROPOSAL In ordinary terms, your proposal explains what you want to study, how you will study this topic, and why this topic needs to be studied. PARTS OF THE THESIS PROPOSAL TITLE Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬ ¯ State the tentative title of your proposal. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬ ¯ The title should give a clear indication of the topic being studied. EXAMPLE: From the thesis of Kimberly Manabat BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬ ¯ It is in this section that you will orient the reader to the problem you seek to solve. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬ ¯ WhatRead MoreProposal : A Proposal For Proposal1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrequest for proposal is a contract between two partners, or companies that one side offers the proposal while the other side will help to take care and mange that proposal to make it more successfully. This agreement is considered as a type of document which investors announce that funding is available for a particular project. Companies or investors have money, however the project is over their control because it requires a long and complex process. Therefore, a request for proposal is a need to
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2620 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/03/13 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Autobiography Essay Did you like this example? According to Beirne and Messerschmidt (2015), Larceny is a crime in which property is taken from someone other than an employer through unlawful means. In this crime, the use of force and breaking and entering are not used. A subtype of larceny is shoplifting, where a perceived customer steals property from a retail store. There are two types of shoplifters. Boosters who sell the merchandise that they steal and snitches who steal merchandise for their own use (p. 248). In the summer of 2007, I was eight years old. Every year it was an upstanding family tradition to go to Plymouth, Massachusetts for the Fourth of July. Like every year before, we packed the family car with sheets and a picnic dinner and headed to the waterfront at noon to beat the crowds and traffic. We put out our sheets in order to claim the optimal firework viewing spot on the hill. Plymouth is a quaint town filled with historic landmarks and little mom and pop shops. And naturally, due to the holiday, it was flooded with tourists. At about 3 oclock the roads were closed off to all street traffic, so my cousins and I were given a free run of the waterfront of Plymouth until the warning shot for the fireworks went off. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Criminal Autobiography" essay for you Create order Once released from parental supervision my cousins and I took to wandering through all of the shops along the main drag. These shops are the typical tourist traps filled with bright sweatshirts embroidered with Cape Cod and Plymouth, Mayflower memorabilia, and every lobster themed merchandise product imaginable. All these items bored me. I live about fifteen to 20 minutes away from Plymouth, so I already had my trademark sweatshirt and the Mayflower was nothing new to me. Going through the stores was a matter of tradition or habit not out of a true need for souvenirs. The last store we went to before dark was the same as all the rest. Sweatshirts, cringy graphic tees, and salt water taffy. Then I saw it. Towards the back of the store, there was a display with silver charm bracelets. I remembered that all the popular girls in my class the previous year had one of these bracelets. I desperately wanted to fit in with these girls, I thought that perhaps this bracelet was my way into the friend group. They were $5.00. eight-year-old me did not have that kind of cash in her pocket so I moved on. I found my cousins on the other end of the store each with something cool in their hands. I thought back to the bracelet deciding that Id really like to have it. I needed it. I went back to the bracelet display and slipped one of the shiny ones into my jean shorts pocket. After my cousins paid for their things, we left the store to meet back with my parents. I asked my older cousin to help me clasp the bracelet and she complimented my taste in jewelry. Later on, my parents asked when I got the bracelet. I lied and said it was from back home. At the end of this report, I have placed a picture of me from the following school year during a class play wearing the bracelet. Ã One criminological theory that can be used to explain why this crime was committed is the Strain Theory. Strain theory was developed by Robert Merton in 1938. He stated that strain is the lack of connection between culturally prescribed goals and the legitimate means of achieving them. He claimed that such strain arose from social fictions in society. Social fictions are concepts like the American Dream which are virtually unattainable for the majority of society. Merton asserted that social fictions led to strain which ultimately led to a persons involvement in deviant behavior. Robert Agnew built upon Mertons theory by asserting the different ways that individuals respond to this concept of strain. These reactions are conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion (Beirne Messerschmidt, 2015). In the case of my shoplifting crime, in order to fit in with a particular group of girls, I needed to have a pretty bracelet. The goal was to get a bracelet, so I too could be popular, but I did not have the money to pay for the item. This mismatch is the strain of my situation. I responded to this strain through innovation. I accepted the goal of obtaining a bracelet in order to be accepted by a particular group of girls but was unable to accept the legitimate means of meeting this goal, paying for the bracelet, because I did not have enough money to buy it at the time. In order to still obtain my goal, I had to adopt innovative measures. I made the decision to steal the bracelet in order to ensure that I had it for the following school year. Althoug h the action that I took was illegal, it resulted in the desolation of the strain in my situation. According to 18 U.S.C.?Ã § 641, anyone who commits larceny willed be fined or imprisoned for not more than ten years or both. If the value of the stolen goods is less than or equal to $1000 then the defendant may be fined, imprisoned for not more than year or both. Crime is breaking the social contract that people enter into with the state. People give up certain liberties in order for the government to lead more efficiently and protect its people. Giving up these individual rights in turn benefit and protect society. The government authority acts upon the behalf of its citizens to protect them and correct instances of wrongdoing. All punishments in the criminal justice system have an objective. Punishments of jail time and fines fall under the category of retribution. The purpose of retribution is for the offender to receive a punishment proportionate to the crime that they committed. A system of measurement determines the magnitude of such punishment in order to have the punishment fit the crime committed. It is important for society to believe that an offenders punishment fits their crime because it will ideally prevent victims and society from taking punishment into their own hands which will disrupt the order of society. When a crime is committed it is not guaranteed the perpetrator will be punished. Although I was not caught when I shoplifted, if I had been, it would not have been likely for me to receive a punishment through the criminal justice system. The value of the bracelet I stole was 5 dollars. Many stores have a minimum loss that needs to occur before they press charges due to the fees associated with the legal system. The cost bracelet probably would not have justified legal action. The prosecutor has the most discretion in the legal system. According to the American Bar Association, if the prosecutor who would be trying my case was overloaded, they may have viewed my crime as a low priority and dismissed the charges. Another possible outcome would be for the prosecutor could have viewed me as a young girl who made a mistake due to lack of judgement. They could argue that they did not want this mistake to follow me through life. In addition, the owner of the shop could have asked for no charges to be brought against me. Although the prosecutor ultimately decides whether charges are brought up, if the victim refuses to cooperate the case would prove difficult, so most prosecutors would likely drop the case. An extreme reason for my lack of punishment would have been if the prosecutor wanted to use me as a defendant. Suppose the prosecutor was interested in bringing down the local hypothetical childhood shoplifting ring. The prosecutor could agree to drop charges against me if I agreed to help them bring their other suspects to justice (ABA, 2016). Ã Labeling theory asserts that a person only becomes deviant because they are labeled as such. Deviance is a behavior that must be learned. A pers on obtains a label based upon how others view their actions and behaviors. These labels can either be accepted or rejected but they are hard to disassociate from. Labels influence how the perceived offender is treated and how they think of themselves. Criminal is a label given to many different types of people. Through criminalization behavior and individuals are transformed into crime and criminals. The label of criminal is both meaningful and meaningless. Every member of society has broken a law at some point in their lives. From felonies to misdemeanors even if the person was not aware at the time. Despite this universal spread, only some people in society are labeled as criminals. Individuals get charged with everyday crimes such as drug offenses and spend the rest of their life in prison or discriminated against, while others who commit those same crimes are allowed to walk free. The matter of whether or not an individual has committed the crime or not become irrelevant, once labeled, the damage is done. When people walk into a store, they are evaluated for their threat potential by the security guard at the door. Do they fit the profile of the usual person who is labeled criminal? Are they a threat to the store? When I walked into that corner souvenir shop, I had another label on me, only in this case my label worked in my favor. I was a sweet white blonde girl, sporting a fourth of July t-shirt, with her hair tied back in pigtails. I was not a criminal I was a young girl who came to watch the fireworks with her upstanding family. As I wandered around the store the guards watchful eyes were not on me, they were on someone else who fit the criminal label a bit more obviously. This lapse in judgment caused him to miss a shoplifter who victimized the store that he was charged to protect. There is not a concrete profile of a subject usually caught for committing the crime of larceny and specifically shoplifting. This is due to the fact that this is a crime capable of being committed by anyone. The National Association for Shoplifting Prevention estimates that there are approximately 27 million shoplifters in America today. (NASP, 2018). This works out to be about 1 in every 11 people in the United States having ever shoplifted (Blanco et al, 2008). In 2017 the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime reports reported 5,519,107 larceny lefts nationwide. The crime of shoplifting specifically accounts for 20.8% of the reported figure (FBI, 2017). The majority of people who shoplift in the United States are categorized as nonprofessionals which means that they steal in response to social and personal pressures in life and not for economic gain (NASP, 2018). According to the 2016 FBI UCR reports of the 833,558 people arrested for Larceny, 69% of the arrested were white and 27.7% were black or African American. 12.7% of those arrested were under the age of 18 (FBI, 2016). The majority of active shoplifters tend to be teenagers. Of the 17-year olds surveyed 39% of males and 23% of females admit to having shoplifted in the past year. This statistic has been shown to decline rapidly with age (Kivivuori, 2007; Klemke, 2001). When 4,422 adult shoplifters were surveyed In a United States National Survey it was revealed that gender split was about 60% men to 40% women offenders. Through this survey, it was also determined that shoplifters can be from any economic group regardless of income. Of those surveyed 60% of offenders had some college, 56% were currently married or partaking in cohabitation living arrangements, 82% lived in urban environments, 78% were white and 9% were black (Blanco et al, 2008). Most importantly though 73% of shoplifters regardless of age do not plan to steal before they enter a store (NASP, 2018). This statistic reveals that shoplifting is a crime of opportunity the majority of the time. Ã This report was built on both official and unofficial data. Official Data is data from the government. The two types of official data utilized in this report are Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and Federal Regulatory Agency data. The UCR is a collection of 8 crimes compiled by the FBI based on crimes reported by law agencies. The benefit of this type of data is that society and law enforcement agencies can access the data once it is processed. This UCR has a large number of shortcomings though. First of all, only the most severe crime is used in the report. This means that of the crimes reported to the FBI only a select few are used to tabulate the UCR via the hierarchy rule. This often leads to a misrepresentation of the number of crimes being committed. Secondly, the UCR does not take into account the number of crimes the go unaccounted for each year. This number is known as the dark figure. There are a number of reasons why crimes are not reported to the authorities. Variables such as race, gender, class, and relationship to the person all play a role in whether a crime will be reported or not. The five levels of subjectivity also need to be addressed in order for a crime to be reported. Someone needs to identify the incident as a crime. A person needs to choose to act and report the crime to the police. The police need to choose to show up at the scene of the crime. The police must choose to send a report of the crime to the UCR and the FBI must also choose to include the crime in the UCR. Another drawback to using UCR data is that the report relies on voluntary reporting. It is up to police officers discretion as to whether a crimes information is sent to the FBI. The police department can choose to under-report in order to make their jurisdiction appear better than it actually is. The final problem with UCR data is that they a re not federal crimes. Another type of official that was used to build this report is Federal Regulatory Agency data. These organizations compile data sets that are specific to their cause. The National Association for Shoplifting Prevention, NASP, is a program that works with the court systems in order to educate the public and offenders about the consequences of shoplifting and offer programs in order to help reform those convicted. This type of data is beneficial because it is typically more descriptive than UCR data which is helpful when attempting to predict trends. This type of data does have shortcoming though. These agencies all have a goal in mind. This prevention associations goal is to convince the public that shoplifting in a pressing problem in the United States to courts will start enforcing their programs. If the public, no longer believes there is a problem these people will be out of a job. This notion could lead to the association presenting bias statistics in order to make their case. The other category of data is unofficial data. This is data that does not come from the government. The type of unofficial data utilized in this report was self-report data. In this type of data collection, surveys are conducted and offenders anonymously speak out about the offenses that they have committed. Using this type of data is beneficial because it gives insight into the dark figure. When offenders report anonymously, they are likely to be more truthful about the crimes that they committed which can help authorities gain insight into how many crimes are actually committed in a year. One drawback to using this type of data is that it can be under-representative. As with all surveys, it is impossible to reach all the members of the population that is trying to be defined. Since not all offenders or victims will be reached the true amount of shoplifting crime will not be known.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Throughout Federalist #78, Alexander Hamilton discusses the importance of having a judiciary branch and the power of judicial review. An important consideration throughout the decision of having judiciary review was appointing the judges and deciding on the tenure in office. There was high concern about these judges being unelected and serving for life. People thought this would lead to them being more corrupt and less likely to base their decisions around what the people really want and need. There would not be a huge check on them, and they would never have to face re-election, so would not have to focus on keeping everyone happy with them in their position. However, Hamilton argued that being unelected and serving for life was beneficial for these judges. Serving for life provides them with the time and ability to become experts in what they do. If they had to be switched out every so often, we would have judges becoming experts just to be kicked out of their position and replaced with new, less informed judges who would have to start the process of becoming an expert all over again. In keeping them unelected, w e avoid the influence of factions or other groups that could sway their, or the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s, decisions on policies and who to elect into office. They also will not be affected by the comings and goings of political parties, and will place them above any current Ã¢â¬Å"trendingÃ¢â¬ social issues. They do have to serve under good behavior, however, lest they be impeached. OtherShow MoreRelatedOverview of the Whiskey Rebellion Essay1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfederal government to implement laws in the United States. The Whiskey Rebellions occurrence was mainly due to a man named Alexander Hamilton. In 1791, right around the time when the American Revolution was finally over and the Americans had won their freedom, America itself was still in debt to their financial aids that had assisted them during the war. At the time, Hamilton was Washingtons secretary of the treasury. He figured, in order to pay and take care of certain war debts, that Congress shouldRead MoreJames Madison : The Oldest Of 12 Children1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJames Madison, born in 1751 in Orange County, Virginia, was AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth president, he served from 1809 - 1817. He wrote The Federalist Paper, with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton. Many people referred to him as The Father of The Constitution because of his many contributions to the ratification of the Constitution. James Madison was the oldest of 12 children. In 1762 he was sent to a boarding school. 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Towards the end of his second term of presidency, Washington revised the address with Alexander Hamilton and in his Farewell Address, Washington strained the importance of religion, patriotism, and morality in American politics. Washington made many important points and gave many forewarnings that the nation should consider, but theRead MoreThe Articles Of Confederation And The Constitution Of The United States1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinto a powerful united nation due to the Federalist PapersÃ¢â¬â¢ highlighting the glaring weaknesses associated with the document and building on the key concepts. The Federalist Papers were a series of 85 essays that were anonymously written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pen name Ã¢â¬Å"PubliusÃ¢â¬ and published in various newspapers in New York; the purpose of these essays that were published between October 1787 and August 1788, was to state reasons as to why the new Constitut ionRead MorePowers Of The United States Constitution1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespowers such as this one, this clause enables Congress to stretch the expressed powers beyond their actual print in the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton proposed for the United States to establish its first bank; however Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Randolph, and James Madison disagreed. They felt that the bank was not Ã¢â¬Å"necessary and properÃ¢â¬ (Namtvedt). Alexander Hamilton believed in the implied powers aspect of the Constitution; thus suggesting a Ã¢â¬Å"strong central governmentÃ¢â¬ for the United States. In contrastRead MoreA Nation Of Pride .. Lifein America After The Revolutionary1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArticles of Confederation and the need for a stronger form of government. Due to the occurrence of Shay s Rebellion, Alexander Hamilton requested a meeting to strengthen the form of government. In response, in May of 1787, a group of fifty-five men gathered in Philadelphia for the constitutional convention. However, many people refused to go to this meeting, including Patrick Henry. Hamilton remained the sole representative from New York. Two-thirds of the delegates were lawyers, and there were no farmersRead MoreHow Does The Constitution Allow For Enduring Debate?1890 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages How does The Constitution allow for enduring debate? In what ways are the early visions of Hamilton and Jefferson reflect in contemporary politics? Sofia Stepanoff Honors History 6 15 December 2014 The ratification of Articles of Confederation was approved, The Constitution was created. The founding fathers decided to create the constitution because the Articles of Confederation limited the central government too much. The Constitution was built to change. The way the constitutionRead MoreThe Articles of Confederation Essay828 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Articles of Confederation Independence from Britain made necessary the establishment of a new government. Eleven states drew up new constitutions; Connecticut and Rhode Island revised colonial charters. The Articles of Confederation created a loose union of near-sovereign states. The Confederation was inadequate and was failing in the structure of government. They also were in deep trouble, financially and economically. The Articles of Confederation probably achieved its most importantRead MoreThe United States And Foreign Affairs Essay1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrance in the war. Both Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury and a Federalist (America Past and Present, pages 197 and 203), and Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of State and a Republican (America Past and Present, pages 197 and 203), wanted to avoid war. However, Jefferson believed that nations wanting to trade with Americans should honor American neutrality, thus, if Britain treated the US as a colonial possession, then the US should favor France in trade. Hamilton thought this to be insane
1. General: During the early European renaissance, military and political influencer Niccolo Machiavelli published several influential works, including The Prince and The Art of War. His work s greatest impacts were expanding on the brutal nature of realpolitik and realism to maintain peace within a highly competitive system and promoting the war manpower shift from mercenaries to citizen militias with buy-in. Many nation-states use his political and military ideals as a basis for their own statecraft and military organizations. 2. AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Identity: Unlike many other previous writers on military thought, Machiavelli was not from pure or noble blood, although he was of enough social status to become literate. Instead, Machiavelli used his intellect to climb the social ladder the highest legs of Italian social order. From 1501 to 1521, Machiavelli worked as an influencer, author, and military leader. Rather than conceal his intellect to avoid prosecution or death, such as within a monastery, Machiavelli balanced a thin line between critical thought and appeasement in his allegorical experiences with Caesar Borgia. 3. AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Purpose and Intended Audience: While Machiavelli s writings can appeal to a wide international audience, Italian political and military leaders were his intended audience, especially those in turbulent city states. Although many of his concepts touch on lower level politics and tactical level operations, a majority of ideas are better suited forShow MoreRelatedComparison Of Nicolo Machiavellis The Prince And Sun Tzu1201 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNicolo MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince and Sun TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s The Art of War both both provide directions for leadership with similar goals. The Prince is primarily geared towards providing valuable information about how a ruler of many principalities may govern different populations and acquire new lands. The Art of War provides us with a schematic of the optimal path to victory. This book is instead directed towards generals of powerful militaries with only the goal of winning. Concepts such as MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s viewRead Mor eMachiavelli vs. Castiglione Essay1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIdeas on the same topic always seem to differ from person to person. This holds true to the ideas of Machiavelli and Castiglione. The Prince, written by Machiavelli, and The Courtier, written by Castiglione, are both somewhat how-to guides for nobility, royalty, and princes. However, there are many distinct differences among the ideas of Castiglione and Machiavelli. Castigliones philosophy leads down the path of a well-rounded person; a more peaceful manner. Machiavellis philosophy is more straightforwardRead MoreAnalysis Of The Prince By Niccolo Machiavelli1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMachiavelli in his work The Prince would disagree. Written for the Medici lords, The Prince offers advice on how to obtain and rule a principality. To do this, he must first explain the nature of man and adjust the method of ruling them accordingly. Machiavelli believes humans by nature are corrupt, so the Prince must also be corrupt to succee d. In order to prove MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, it is first necessary to understand what he defines as success. Machiavelli believes that for a prince to be successful heRead MoreConnections Between Hitler And The Prince1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConnections between Hitler and The Prince Hitler said, Ã¢â¬Å"Germany will either be a world power or will not be at allÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Adolf Hitler QuoteÃ¢â¬ ). Adolph Hitler became the leader of the German Nazi party in 1933. His leadership was both loved and despised. He controlled the Nazi party for more than a decade (Ã¢â¬Å"Adolph HitlerÃ¢â¬ ). Considering the length of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s reign, he must have had leadership qualities that people found admirable or they feared him so greatly that no one would attempt to overthrowRead More Machiavellis The Prince Essay1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The state is the highest achievement of man, a progressive and elaborate creation of his free will. The individual, the leader, the people, cooperate in maintaining it.Ã¢â¬ This idea of state was put forth by Niccolo Machiavelli in The Prince, which was in essence a rulerÃ¢â¬â¢s handbook to governing and maintaining his land. Machiavelli conjured his theories for government by basing his ideas in his belief that men , especially men in power, tend to follow the same directions, and therefore by lookingRead MoreEssay about Plato vs Machiavelli1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhole was the main concern, and the ends always justified the means. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s object was the creation of a utopian society--a civilization that abhorred war and centered itself upon moral virtue and honor. He saw war as evil; and evil was merely the failure of justice. He believed that there should be a standing army to defend the republic but that war for the sole purpose of waging battles was highly unjust. His utopian society was centered on creating society perfect; he sought to answer the probingRead More The prince Essay1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Niccolo MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The PrinceÃ¢â¬ attempts to explain the necessary tactics and required knowledge a ruler must attain in order to gain and maintain a successful reign. The novel serves as an abstract manual, addressing the definition of a good/bad ruler by placing emphasis on the required military organization, the character a ruler must posses, and the success that could be attained if a ruler should follow the guide. The scope in which the book is written is that of a schol arly observant. MachiavelliRead MoreMachiavellian Rulers Are Focused on War in MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The PrinceÃ¢â¬ brought up some controversial characteristics on what a Machiavellian ruler is. The characteristic that was most stressed was that Ã¢â¬Å"A prince must have no other objective, no other thought, nor take up any profession but that of war.Ã¢â¬ (Machiavelli 37). With a main focus on the art of war a ruler can protect the state he governs from attacks against him and his state. Machiavelli offers us an analogy to prove the importance of war. He speaks of two men: one armed and one unarmedRead More Relevance of MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Princeto Todays World Essay1295 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Relevance of The Prince to Todays World The only way it was possible to get ahead was to be part of the inner circle.Ã It didnt really matter what the issue was or what sort of implications it carried.Ã All that mattered was knowing the right person, having the right information, making the right introductions, and going to the right parties.Ã The most valuable information was not necessarily something you knew about an enemy but something you knew about a friend.Ã Staff and advisorsRead MoreSocrates And Machiavelli : A Political Philosopher1666 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocrates was a moral philosopher whose goal was to search for truth and knowledge, Machiavelli was a political philosopher whose goal was to create a lasting society with a Prince that could hold power. Because of their clashing ideals, it is unlikely that Socrates would be supportive of a Machiavellian political system or Prince, though there are specific aspects of the society that Socrates would find appealing. One thing that both Socrates and Machiavelli would agree on is that people have limitations
An analysis of the book Lies My Teacher Told Me by James Loewen from a personal perspective. The writer of this paper examines his own feelings about the way that history was taught in school after reading this book by Loewen. The paper is written in first person and makes reference to common misconceptions in American history which were made known to the writer by reading Lies My Teacher Told Me. How could my teacher lie to me? What could this author possible mean? One could truly be unpleasantly surprised while reading Lies My Teacher Told Me. Normally, history books have not held my attention, but this book has kept me reading with eyes wide open. I probably learned more from this book than I have from any other history classes or textbooks. As Loewen discusses heroification, Christopher Columbus, and the American Indians, a theme becomes evident with history. The good side of history has always been presented to students while the bad side of history seems to have been pushed aside. We will write a custom essay sample on Examining Biases or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
I have been stabbed with a fork more times in my lifetime than anyone should have to count. What a random tribulation, an odd occurrence, and yet there was a time in my life where my younger sister would pursue me almost daily with the intent of plunging cutlery into the back of my hand. There was a part of her that lost control intentionally so as to cause injury, but an even larger part that could not control her sudden mood swings due to rather unique compilation of behavioral disorders. In the midst of these tantrums, my job has always been to remain patient and in control of my faculties, and, in the spirit of honesty, I should have been fired many times over.It is not my natural inclination to quietly wait for her mood to pass or to speak soothing words to other siblings, rather a skill, that through the course of my life I have been forced to learn. We will write a custom essay sample on Hard Earned Virtues or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page My little sister, Jena, although I love her dearly, has added a layer of tension to my life that would otherwise not have been there. Most of my childhood revolved around finding ways to avoid setting her off. Lord knows, that my stepping across the line was a catalyst for an explosive reaction. There have been times when she is constantly moving ever closer to loosing her temper and I send up the continuous prayer, Ã¢â¬Å"give my patience, give my patience, give me patienceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ to deal with Jena. And, ultimately, I have learned to be patient. As a High School student, patient people are few and far between. There is an ever-present anxiety over the looming college applications and trying to achieve the highest possible grades so as to overcome this ultimate challenge, and we, as a people group, get wrapped up in the selfish need to attend to only our own learning. In this transitional phase, it is hard to give grace to our fellow students and remember that we all are reaching for the same goal. For instance, in math, our school district has adopted a new method of teaching: instruction in the team format. The difficulty in this is that everyone works at their own pace, and as a math geek, I want to put my nose to the grindstone and plow through all the problems to complete them for my own understanding. Unfortunately, this is not a good way to help my teammates. We all work at a different pace, and slowing down to explain complex calculus takes a great deal of patience but works towards a higher learning outcome than applying mathematical theorems. In this setting, patience leads to understanding the value in teamwork and relationships rather than focusing on annihilating a list of math questions. Patience is a valuable character trait, and I am thankful to have been born into a position where I have had to develop this attribute. In walking alongside Jena, and watching her grow, I have developed patience and understanding as a skill that can be easily applied to life scenarios. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s solving a list of math problems, or working towards a learning outcome, patience has become my most treasured tool, and my little sister is to be thanked. Although my hand still twinges a bit at the thought, I can be grateful for the fact that I have someone in my life willing to stab me wi